Indonesia Bali coffee is grown on the beautiful Indonesian island of Bali, which is nestled between Java and Lombok. The island's coffee growing region, pronounced "Kintamani," is situated at an altitude of approximately 1,200 to 1,600 meters above sea level. It boasts a unique subak abian system, which integrates coffee cultivation with the region's rich culture and religious practices.
Coffee has been grown in the Kintamani region of Bali for centuries. The Dutch introduced Arabica coffee to Indonesia in the 17th century, and the crop has thrived in Bali's fertile volcanic soil ever since. In the early 20th century, the Bali coffee industry experienced a decline due to the prevalence of coffee leaf rust. However, in the 1970s, the Indonesian government introduced new, disease-resistant varieties of Arabica coffee, which helped revive the industry. Today, coffee is an essential part of Bali's agricultural landscape and a significant contributor to the local economy.
In Bali, coffee is typically grown using traditional, organic farming methods. The island's coffee farmers adhere to the subak abian system, a traditional Balinese cooperative water management system that combines the spiritual, social, and agricultural aspects of the community. This system ensures that coffee is grown in harmony with nature and the local environment.
Coffee farming in Bali primarily involves smallholder farmers, who cultivate coffee plants alongside other crops such as citrus, cacao, and vegetables. This intercropping method creates a diverse ecosystem that promotes healthy soil and pest control, leading to higher-quality coffee beans.
Bali coffee is most commonly processed using the wet-hulled method, also known as giling basah in Indonesia. This processing technique involves removing the coffee cherry's outer skin and pulp, fermenting the beans in water for 24-36 hours, and then washing them to remove any remaining mucilage. The beans are then partially dried before the parchment layer is removed, resulting in a distinctive blueish-green color. The beans are then left to dry further until they reach the desired moisture level.
Indonesia Bali coffee, specifically those from the Kintamani region, is known for its bright acidity, medium body, and a complex flavor profile. The unique combination of volcanic soil, high altitude, and traditional farming methods contribute to the distinct characteristics of Bali coffee. Tasting notes often include fruity flavors such as citrus, berry, and tropical fruit, accompanied by floral and spicy undertones. The wet-hulled processing method also imparts a unique earthiness and a smooth, syrupy mouthfeel to the coffee, making it a sought-after specialty coffee among connoisseurs.
Bali coffee is an exceptional example of the rich and diverse coffee culture found in Indonesia. The island's coffee industry has a fascinating history and a unique approach to farming and processing that sets it apart from other coffee-growing regions. With its complex flavors and environmentally-conscious cultivation methods, Indonesia Bali coffee continues to captivate the palates of coffee enthusiasts worldwide.